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Wael Osama

BGP fast-external-fallover

This command is enabled by default on CISCO IOS. The command terminates external BGP sessions of any directly adjacent peer if the link used to reach the peer goes down; without waiting for the hold-down timer to expire. Although this feature improves the BGP conversion time, it may lead to …

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Routers’ Operating systems

The router operating system is a piece of software responsible for managing the router resources by controlling and allocating memory, prioritizing system requests and processes, controlling I/O devices and managing file systems. The most two famous router operating systems are Cisco IOS and Juniper JUNOS. Cisco IOS is a monolithic …

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Native VLAN

Native VLAN is a dot1Q concept that was created for backward compatibility with old devices that don’t support VLANs. Full story detailed below.. How Native VLAN works? Frames belonging to the native VLAN are not tagged when sent out o­n the trunk links so older devices can simply understand. Frames …

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PBR as a QOS tool

In order to apply QOS policies in your network, traffic should be classified first. There are many techniques available for packet classification. PBR is one of these techniques as discussed below. PBR can be used to match a specific flow and then apply QOS policies on it, like marking this …

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Routers’ Memory types

The memory come in many forms for several storage purposes such as to store the operating system , the configuration, the bootstrap, packets, and so forth. Below is a detailed description of all memory types used in routers and the purpose of each. BootROM BootROM is used for permanently the …

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